The empire of the Incas, was established in Cusco, by the year 1200 DC Their origin is given in relation to two famous legends; one is the legend of Manco Capac and legend Mama Ocllo, and the other is the legend of the Ayar Brothers. In both cases the legends point to Manco Capac as founder and first governor of the empire. But it was until the time of Pachacutec, the empire achieved its greatest expansion and power, getting to cover nearly 2 million km2 and was during this time that was built the Inca City of Machu Picchu.
The arrival of the Spanish conquistadors would cause the fall of the empire, moment in which, the Inca city have been abandoned, when there was still to be completed, and although some people say that the Spaniards knew of the existence of Machu Picchu possibly could never find it. The truth would be the location, it would only be known by locals, until its discovery, 1911, when Hiram Bingham with the help of Yale University, the National Geographic Society and the Peruvian government gave known to the world. Bingham started excavation works in the area from 1912 until 1915, time when the thick vegetation that covered much of the finding is removed, many niches of city dwellers were discovered.
Machu Picchu became the favorite tourist destination in Peru and one of the largest in the world. It is declared a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. I also voted for millions of people from every continent, to be chosen as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World; Machu Picchu is without doubt the greatest heritage left by the Inca civilization.
Before that Machu Picchu was built, this area was inhabited by populations of neighboring areas as Vilcabamba and the Sacred Valley, they are seeking to expand. But after the expansion of the Inca power, these became part of the growing empire of Tahuantinsuyo.
Studies agree that Machu Picchu was built in the mid fifteenth century, under the rule of emperor Pachacutec, main responsible for the expansion Inca and its transformation from a simple lordly to the magnificent empire we now know that it was.
According to historical sources, during the reign of Wiracocha, the dominion of the Incas, was constantly threatened by their western neighbors, the Chancas; with the possibility of an invasion, Wiracocha, with his heir Inca Urco, fled the city leaving his people at the mercy of the invaders, Cusi Yupanqui, also son Wiracocha, decided to fight the Chancas, making alliances with local tribes, thus he achieves defeat, saving the Inca Empire. The victory against the Chancas made the Inca Wiracocha recognized him as successor to the throne. That was how Cusi Yupanqui took over in a short time become a rule of about 2 million m2. He went on to change his name to Pachacutec Yupanqui Capac Intichuri which translated into Spanish means son of the sun that changes the course of the earth. With commanding Pachacutec, the Inca domain ceased to be a lordship to expand rapidly and become the greatest empire which we have record. This time of prosperity, allowed the construction of magnificent works, the most important is the Inca City of Machu Picchu.
Reason for its construction
At first it was believed that Machu Picchu was built in order to serve as a military fortress or even a retreat for Pachacutec; both hypotheses were taken as true, lost weight over time. Comprehensive studies conducted by some of the best specialists, have announced that Machu Picchu was used as a place of worship, a religious sanctuary. Other speculations are that served as a monastery, where the girls were prepared to serve the Inca and the high priest, because of the 135 bodies found, 109 belong to women. Although its use as a palace is not ruled out.
It is believed that Machu Picchu had between 300-1000 people during its heyday. The study of the Inca society, indicates that labor for cultivation in the city, would have been formed by the dominated people (called mitimaes), from different parts of the empire.
Colonial Period and Republican
Research shows that this urban center was abandoned between 1.534 and 1.570, resistance Inca period. The Spanish invasion faced by the Inca empire, had been seized by settlers or mitimaes who took advantage of the crisis, to flee towards their hometowns.
There is no evidence to indicate that the Spanish have managed to reach Machu Picchu or who knew of its existence, it is argued, as the Spanish chroniclers never mentioned the town in his writings, so it can be concluded that never came to know it. However, other studies argue the opposite, based on studies that show that Spaniards have used the city as the main stage, to remove the Andean religion, traces of fire were found in some structures. Apparently the extirpators of idolatry, they plundered the treasures that were in Machu Picchu.
Another fact that supports this theory is that among the evidence found by Bingham and his team, in some excavated tombs were found objects belonging to a post-stage of the Incas, such as a rusty iron knife, cow bone, peach nuggets and the remains of an account of green glass. While it is necessary to mention that these objects were not found by archaeologists, which diminishes some validity to the findings.
If they knew Machu Picchu or not, it is clear that Spanish was not given the deserved importance to the city in the past, since there are no buildings nearby. What I caused that gradually the place was forgotten by the Spanish conquerors, but not for locals.
You may famous archaeologists and historians, have visited the site during the Republican era, but would not have noticed the presence of the ancient Inca city, this would be the case of Antonio Raimodi, famed researcher, geographer, writer and professor. Some sources indicate that in 1867, the ruins were visited by the German Augusto Berns, an adventurer who would be the real "discoverer" of the ancient City of the Incas.
While this is attributed to the American Hiram Bingham, other sources indicate that Agustín Lizárraga, lessee of origin of Cusco, he would have come to the city nine years before its official discoverer. They say that Lizarraga left an inscription on one of the walls of the Temple of the Three Windows. This registration would have been documented by Bingham himself, and then deleted.
The history from Lizarraga and their visits to the ancient Inca ruins, caught the attention of Hiram Bingham, who was investigating the last Inca strongholds in the area. Upon hearing these rumors begin searching Bingham, accompanied by the cusquenian lessee Melchor Arriaga, and a sergeant of the Peruvian Civil Guard reaching Machu Picchu, in July 1911. In the place you would find two families, the Recharte and Alvarez, established south of the ruins. Finally a child of the Recharte was who led Bingham to Stone Town, covered by thick vegetation.
We assume that Bingham immediately understood the huge historical value of his find, so requested support and auspices of Yale University, the National Geographic Society and the Peruvian government, so the archaeological site studies were initiated. Conducted since 1912, by three years. Period in which they managed to clear the weed that infested the inca city.
In 1913, National Geographic published in one edition of its magazine, an extensive article of the Machu Picchu, and the works were carried out there, so revealing the lost city to the world. Over the years, the city of Machu Picchu would grow, gaining tourist importance nationally and then globally, which earned her the title of Cultural heritage of Humanity by UNESCO, in 1983. And the July 7, 2007, after a vote by Internet, by millions of people around the world, Machu Picchu was declared one of the seven wonders of the modern world.
By Ticket Machu Picchu – Last Update, 02-10-2015