Places to Visit in Machu Picchu

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2016 Ticket Machu PicchuLike other cities or llactas Incas, Machu Picchu also follows the principles of duality and cuatripartition.

It is divided into two main areas: Urban and agricultural that are separated by a dry moat. Each of these sections is divided into two sub-sectors: The High or Hanan and Low or Urin having 19 urban complexes (Residence of the nobility and specialists, temples, huacas, workshops, warehouses and others) , 13 agricultural sets, a central plaza, 2 seater minor and 8 roads. The east side of Machu Picchu, has just over 60% of all construction.

How is distributed Machu Picchu?

  1. Agricultural Zone
    1.1 Sentry post of the Andenes
    1.2 First group of Andenes
    1.3 Sector Under Andenes
  2. Urban Zone
    2.1 Sacred Space
          2.1.1 Main Temple
          2.1.2 Temple of the Three Windows
          2.1.3 Temple of the Sun (Torreon)
          2.1.4 Templo of Mother Earth or Pachamama (Temple of the Dead)
          2.1.5 Residence Real (Inca Palace)
          2.1.6 Fonts (Las Pacchas)
          2.1.7 Intihuatana
    2.2 Residential Space
          2.2.1 Sacred Rock (Altar of the Replica of Apus)
          2.2.2 Water Mirror
          2.2.3 Prisions
          2.2.4 Temple of the Cóndor
          2.2.5 Adoratorio to stone

 

Zonas Machu Picchu

 

1. AGRICULTURAL ZONE

In the Agricultural Zone, there are some architectural elements: the group of houses of the Guardians, the sentry post and Kallanka which is building of more extension.n.

The farming terraces or andenes are successive steps that are located on the slopes of the rugged local topography. The retaining walls of the terraces often reach more than 4 m high. On its walls, are inlaid stones, allowing access from one platform to another and are aligned diagonally protruding from the wall. Among the edible cultivated the corn was the most consumed food in ancient Peru. Because Machu Picchu is around 2,400 meters. the coca wasn’t produced because there prospered because of altitude.

The platforms in craggy areas of Huayna Picchu and those located on the abrupt slopes of the edges of the Urban Sector of Machu Picchu could be cultivated, but mainly they were intended to assert the ground to prevent slippage and landslides.

Also, on the perimeter of the Agricultural Zone is found the called Funerary Rock with its cut and polished flat, the same of Superior Cemetery, extending to the east side of the Kallanka. These platforms, such as also those of the neighboring complex agro-cultist of Wiñay Wayna, were more than just growing areas. They are embellished to honor the Goddess Earth or Pachamama, direct donor support. The broken form of the platforms could inspire the stepped emblem. Possibly this sign, extremely repetitive iconography, was the symbol par excellence of the Pachamama, or Earth Goddess, present in ancient Peru from ancient times three thousand years ago.

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1.1 Sentry post of the Andenes

The platforms called "pata pata" in Quechua are "stepped terraces" that climb the hills and mountains in various gradients, platforms not only create fertile land, also avoids erode of the useful land, allow effective drainage, achieve a maximization of water and retain the fertility of the area, lowering elements and minerals just from one level to another, accumulating in soil, the humus needed of a platform to another. The Inca society met and consumed more than three hundred plants in different ecological zones that are adapted to one another, which led in the empire one of the cuisines most varied and exquisite.

Among the tuberous or roots inherited from the Incas is the potato, sweet potato, cassava and root vegetables; regarding the tomato is among the best known, also highlighting the corn, quinoa and quiwicha products are regaining his seat as food of the future.

The chili seasoning as powerful and coca considered the most powerful painkiller; an important point is to recognize that many plants used by ancient Peruvians. Were also knowledge of other American cultures, as in the case of sweet potato, cassava, maize and other industrial nature such as cotton. Without these natural foods or dehydrated wouldn’t have been feasible creating a gigantic empire as was the Inca.

The andenes of Machu Picchu are mostly oriented to sunrise, which is why, during the morning optimizes use of solar radiation. In this University of nature and ecology were done special studies on adaptation of plants entering and / or leaving the jungle and this effect did the smaller cities that are in the valley of the Vilcanota their andenes also have their face to the sunrise and so progressively acclimated to the altitude.

 

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1.2 First group of Andenes

Zonas Machu Picchu

This first group of platforms are located at the entrance to the city of Machu Picchu, near the cemetery, located sequentially in order to get more light and basking are elongated rectangular, linked by a staircase, the last platform has clear examples of Inca architecture using mud mortar, these homes are now partially restored to give an idea of how they were built at that time.

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1.3 Sector Under Andenes

The agricultural zone is one of the most important and justifies why the existence of the city of Machu Picchu as a study center and acclimatization of the wide variety of plants in and out of the jungle, the Inca culture will be recognized by the large number of plant genera that could domesticate, this being one of the few areas Babáricas and gene pool for the world.

This sector is glued to the dry moat, has over 40 platforms, obeying the need for agricultural land of experimentation, forcing transform the pending in long succession of walls and embankments is the only way to master the difficult terrain with height differences of more than 500 meters with respect to the river, forming a huge bleachers that comes from the river bank to the highest peaks, even the Huayna Picchu, all with the aim of having areas and crops and adaptation to the height of both highland and jungle species.

The approximate proportions of an platform is 3.50 m. high by 3.00 m. wide in the horizontal plane, also draws attention to the platforms oriented towards the west
corresponding to the bridge area San Miguel, which are short, low-rise, these were mainly retaining walls, as those seen from the road leading to the Inca bridge, road to Vilcabamba.

It is not difficult to imagine that the Incas had better farmland in more accessible areas and able to work much easier, the question that always comes up is why these terraces on the steeper parts, the answer gave us the answer archeology and botany tonnage The first analyzes the bowels of the platforms, which highlights that they have the following shape: a retaining wall between platform and platform in which you can make visible by 50% and the other is buried, the function of this wall was apart of the construction, to capture the solar energy, heat absorbing the stones in the morning to be irradiated in the afternoon, so that the plants enjoy a greenhouse effect by its conformation.

Composition of Andenes: First, in the bottom were placed small stones and splinters which functioned as quickly evacuate the excess water through the cracks that form between them, because rainfall is abundant here, addition to aerate the platform so that made it more fertile ground, with this system there was a moisture balance of the anden.

A second layer of coarse sand or earth disturbed, and finally a thick layer of organic soil from one to two meters thick. It is hard to imagine the volume of earth were removed and relocated. For quality agriculture must meet three requirements are: light, moisture and soil conditions presented smugly in peak condition and the high peaks of Machu Picchu. The tools used in culture were among other chaquitaclla call, which is a foot plow and a very hard wood tip "chonta" it is still used today with the tip exchanged for iron.

It isn’t the gold the most valuable thing the Spaniards took of Peru to America and Europe, food revolution happened, had great significance for the variety of products that moved the New World. Eighty potato varieties more than once saved the world from famine, French fries have Peruvian origin, Italian pasta and pizzas not be the same without tomatoes brought from Peru. Maize of Peru is so large that is eaten grain by grain and is unique, peanuts, the almond adds flavor to meals, unparalleled, it was conquered by the Peruvians, rocoto and chili that accompanying any dish many aromatic herbs, the lucma or lucuma, which gives the flavor of one of the most delicious ice cream; quinoa and quiwicha "amarantus" that are taking place as highly nutritional products in the world market, are examples of food that cultural encounter in which both worlds are enriched as a contribution of the Incas of Peru.

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2. URBAN ZONE

Zonas Machu Picchu

In the Urban Zone, is clustered architectural complexes, highlighting the two major plots: the Sacred Space and Residential Space. Zoning on, spaces or areas with restrictions created by doors, walls and streets that ensured the rational use only one social class as the priestly, the architectural quality of these corroborate this fact.

This area responds to the trilogy that governed the daily life of the Inca culture that are the Kay Pacha, the land of the living, with the water the giver of life and death represented by the viper or snake through two ceremonial fountains, and below a sequence of them. The Hanan Pacha or the land of the gods, represented by the Sun God and also has by courier the fertilizing ray is represented by the "Puma" or the Andean lion, the Solar Tambor has the dual function of worshiping the Sun God and astronomically control their functions. The Uhju Pacha, which is the land of the dead, represented by the condor, the sacred bird that could take the souls of men from earth to heaven, its representation is a symbolic architectural expression buried in darkness, under the temple of the sun.

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2.1 SACRED SPACE

At Sacred Space was accessed by a vain known by the name of Front Door of the City. Until this place leads the Inca road, which after to get the Intipunku in the upper part of the mountain Machu Picchu, descends to reach this Front Door. Among the various sets of Sacred Space highlights the Group de la Portada, Temple of the Sun (Tower), Royal Mausoleum, the Royal Residence (Royal Palace), the Temple of Three Windows, the Main Temple and finally the Intihuatana group, which occupies the highest place of Sacred Space.

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2.1.1 Main Temple

Formed by a gorgeous rig structure, its flat responds to pattern of huayrana of an enclosure framed by only three walls, each of the large pieces have been carefully carved, gables have in their sides cajuelas or moldings. The central wall is 11 m. Behind Main Temple next to the Chamber of ornaments, one of whose stones presents nothing less than 32 angles.

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2.1.2 Temple of the Three Windows

To the northeast lies this temple, It stands adjacent to the main temple. Bingham believed at first that his vain evoked the mythical three caves Tamputoco – metaphorically vaginas Goddess Earth or Pachamama – from where departed ancestors of the Inca sovereigns for founding Cuzco.
It consists of three polygonal walls, built with huge stone pieces perfectly assembled with great art and skill, there are three windows and two niches, one on each side. There is no ventilation windows but openings framed in magical-religious concepts.

Hiram Bingham performs excavations in the front of this temple finding lots of broken pottery and highlights the detail of the foundation of this temple as having, a depth of three meters, facing in this there is also the symbolic figure of the head of a llama evidently tilled, this allegorical image auquénido contributed both as pack animals, meat and clothing supplier to the Incas.

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2.1.3 Temple of the Sun (Torreon)

templo sol Machu Picchu

This room, the more beautiful for its perfection and symmetry, occupies a large and dominant space has two floors: the first is a semi-subterranean temple and the second stands a beautiful semicircular wall most perfectly tracing, mounted stones, spun by spun, with a nod toward the interior. It has two trapezoid shaped windows and scrolls on the four corners, one oriented towards the most extreme winter solstice which occurs on June 22 and the other facing the Sun Gate (Inti Punku) corresponding to the summer solstice occurs on December 22.

On the outside of this solar drum, observed two scrolls are not constructive errors,
this pair of scrolls are the solar medium between a window and the other because it is closer to the window of the winter solstice and from there by the circular shape of the wall, the sun will run faster.

Through this architecture outcrops a central rock, carved in the form of an altar that was used to track the sun as it travels back and forth.

To the north side, a door can be seen with a beautiful trapezoidal lintel, with very similar pin holes that exist in the Koricancha, its true purpose is to move ropes and fix the door from the inside of this large window, if there is not would give entrance to the most important area of Machu Picchu as the solar tower.

The window of snakes communicates directly to the mains water having a flawless finish, showing a functional relationship between them and through this window.

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2.1.4 Templo of Mother Earth or Pachamama (Temple of the Dead)

Traditionally known as the Royal Mausoleum, Sitio de los Muertos or the Inca Tomb. It is located on the lower level to semi-circular drum, is a natural cave, cold and dim, its roof is the basis for the Sun Temple, inside is a rock carved in the shape of stairs, function altar to place offerings, the entire wall is plated with stones of the finest Inca stonework, forming trapezoidal niches, with sufficient height to contain the mummy of a man.

It is also the temple for the worship of the dead, in Inca times was very important to keep the mortal remains, they believed in the return of the spirit in another aspect and arose again in this world, the nobles were embalmed and mummified in a squatting position, together with blankets and personal items; during the festivities these mummies were put out to worship them, as they were considered protective spirits of the empire, the existence of large nails or brackets stone cylindrical inside, show the possibility of hanging offerings or heavy objects that adorn this room.

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2.1.5 Residence Real (Inca Palace)

This group is also known as ‘Royal Palace‘. It is called so because of its greater spaciousness, distribution of environments and architectural quality. It is characterized by large stone lintels on their porches, is entered by a passage leading to a lobby or reception, where it has in medium height, a ring of stone-ground,
which had to be the bearer of a moving object by wear that it presents.

From there it goes to a switchyard, one of its sides is a principal room ten niches, for the quality and height of these should contain ornaments, is a room – bedroom, because in one end is shaped platform, and next there is a door leading to an open space that is private toilet facility that has the visual cut that gives the atmosphere intimate character, you can also see small hornacinas for as that covers their biological waste, also on the floor are the drainages.

In the courtyard there is a monolithic outcrop with some imagination it seems like a head of a flame, not obvious and you may not be anything momentous.

Another room which faces the bedroom, is larger, corresponds to a dining or meeting room, because adjacent to it there is a small room which is a public toilet facility in this there is a channel through which the sewage flowed to a field, in both buildings roofs are gabled, with steep roofs to facilitate ecorrantias of rainwater.

This courtyard also leads into a narrow passage, single access of entry for indoor environments, where the service staff Inca lived, by the lower architectural quality; from the distribution a courtyard, rooms and terraces have a magnificent view of the city.

There is a room two floors, which are accessed via a staircase at the back and bottom, has an interesting provision in the amount of doors, a need frequent access is related to a "field" or open space and a ladder for exclusive communication for auxiliary personnel outwards likewise has a bare room with a narrow door that is intended for animal husbandry that equipped to the Inca with fresh meat.

 

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2.1.6 Fonts (Las Pacchas)

In parallel to the Central Steps, The Pacchas are moved, with its 16 waterfalls pluviomágica obvious function.

Main Fonts

The second source, which is so called, because they were in the highest part
and sharing functions with semi-circular temple of observation of the sun god and its connection with ritual acts and ceremonies related to the water in a sacralized world in which religion and magic worldview was part of their daily lives, for them the oldest deities came out of the waters of Lake Titicaca and the Andean nature always depended on water, rain, that is why there is a direct relationship between the Sun Temple and a beautiful fountain, for it has a large window which links this function.

From here it is distributed the water in sequence to other sources, is a source of factory unique, because it is made of little pieces and give a monolithic appearance, it must take a lot of work to manufacture, polish and waterproof assembly thereof.

La Casa del Inca is related to this source, because the door is directly facing it, by a hierarchical issue is the Inca who drink first, after water is available from other sources in accordance with social scales expressed also in the urban zone.

After this you can see the existence of another source, where the water falls of greater height, is shaped like altar, these primary sources were used main temples of worship to water and offerings were given to this deity.

Secondary Fonts

In the sacred area, there are 16 sources with channels common distribution, the water is led to the urban sector, from an outcrop located 760 meters away in the foothills of the mountain Machu Picchu, in manufacturing there are different qualities formed by stones brought or cut from nearby places.

The water sources had two mixed functions, the first: in the water shrine in Machu Picchu and all the buildings, by the idiosyncrasies of the Incas was venerated water for His goodness and second for consumption, required an informal ceremony when provisioned the liquid element, for which he set small and discrete environments, also for health reasons, for here by the narrow, you can not perform any other activity rather than the collection of water and not pollute the following sources with waste.

The Inca culture, mainly religious, loved the water which formed an important part of the overall worship and daily life, these fonts, do not have provision independently are a range of sources, with a repetitive rhythm, water runs noisily, joining them, dropping loudly modulated by stone gargoyles, creating an effect of light on these jets, each is a ceremonial center, its approaches are oriented in different meanings according to the ward serving facilitating their access from different levels, all with a constructive quality, have a drop of water on a jar and a water outlet at the bottom, on the walls there are small trapezoidal niches and their heights are not greater than 1.20 m. were not clean bathrooms, but served for water supply and worship of the same in a private ceremony full of symbolism.

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2.1.7 Intihuatana

intihuatana Machu Picchu

In the highest part of the Urban Zone is located the Intihuatana group, corresponding to the most important area of Sacred Space and Machu Picchu generally. Its vestiges are moved on a rocky promontory which is accessed by a semicircle of 70 steps. On the esplanade presenting top a huge sculpture carved into the rocky outcrop, with flat surfaces is located neatly carved. Its perimeter reaches 8.60 m and height 1.76 m This huge sculpture called intihuatana. But it is the column carved into the rock that makes up the sculpture, which is properly known as intihuatana. It measures 66 cm high and is horizontally cut away at its upper sector.

The Intihuatana is at the center, is the most enigmatic Inca work of Machu Picchu, an astronomical observatory or "Intihuatana of the Incas", which in Quechua means "where it is tied to the sun" is a granite outcrop geometrically styled with multiple moldings, faces, planes and levels; stands at the top a cubic of protrusion finely carved with finely carved faces necessarily responded to a careful study, must have been hard work for their carvers because it required precision in cutting.

A large bedrock was carved to form the Intihuatana and their accessories, we must remember that in order to perform any solar or astronomical observation should permanently have three conditions, first the observer (the Wise), second focus (Intihuatana) that must be fixed, so that observations do not vary each year and can be compared with previous examinations and third point to observe (the sun), the agricultural clock comply with these specific conditions, all in one stone block.

The outcrop that forms the Intihuatana and the observer are parts of a single unwavering piece, which shows only purpose is to recognize the sun, movement, shadow generation Intihuatana were carefully cut and polished for different seasons.

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2.2 RESIDENTIAL SPACE

The Residential Area includes many groups, such as prisons, Water Mirrors (Mortars), Three Portadas and Upper Group. Also, the altar of the Apus Replica known as the "Sacred Rock" and, finally, to the Stone Adoratorio.

Some of these groups may have been dwellings of managers, as well as the officiants of ceremonies, and according to what suggested by Bingham perhaps also acllas or selected women responsible, among other functions, to make tissues, those who attached great value the Inca diplomacy. However, the sets of Residential Area are, as Sacred Space, on a smaller scale, impregnated with a sacred halo.

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2.2.1 Sacred Rock (Altar of the Replica of Apus)

Usually known as ‘Sacred Rock‘, the Sanctuary Replica of Apus is characterized by a stone that repeats the jagged silhouette of a set of the mountain range, laden with sacred sap. Complement the large sculpture two huayranas or environments of only three walls.

This rock is representation of the hill that is at the bottom, the "enigmatic Yanantin" which means "hill of two summits" as it is actually (detail that can be seen from Inti Punku or Sun Gate), the rock has the profile of the top of the protective mountain of the Vilcanota Valley, and this whole scenario is complemented by the two huayranas representing the left side of the Huayna Picchu and the right to the mountain Putucusi, which end up giving the sacred aspect to the mountain "Yanantin". The mountains of Huayna Picchu and mountains Putucusi are unique, they are not part of a chain, are the mountains called "Chullallan" which means "single or solitary" that for Incas had meaning pure by this feature.

This rock also has a special location, as is the road that leads to two important temples: Temple of Stars and Mountain Observatory, the "Huayna Picchu" and the "Moon Gate" erroneously called the Temple Moon, both paths converge in this square, where it is reverenced to the guardian mountain of Machu Picchu.

The representation of "Yanantin" must transcend in local importance, because this form or profile can also be seen in the town of Ollantaytambo, because the rock has a very similar shape and almost the same size, stands on a pedestal and is also oriented in the same direction as that of Machu Picchu; obviously both rocks represent the same mountain.

Placing us in the back of the sacred rock toward to the mountain front, you can see a straight line, it is a great stone wall that has 1, 075 m. in length and 2 to 6 m. in height which is oriented directly towards the summit of the sacred mountain "Yanantin" this path or moat is a form of brand, mark or limit that demanded much work in construction, overcoming obstacles, with the sole idea of ​​marking a straight line the top, done that reaffirms the quality of this sacred mountain, the point of origin of this leader line is the Huayna Picchu.

 

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2.2.2 Water Mirror

They are in one of the enclosures of the group known as the ‘Industrial Area’. The name comes from the presence, on one of its campuses, a stone carved sculptural element in one of the rocks exposed on the ground. The sculpture has two circular cavities of ritual function evidently, that Bingham interpreted as mortars. These served to guess the reflections of crystalline water surface or magical substances that were deposited in these containers. For these reasons, we prefer the name The Water Mirror, applied both to the site name and where are the buildings that make up the whole..

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2.2.3 Prisions

It comprises a set of surrounding buildings with the group of Mirrors Water, although at a lower level. The ensemble walls with niches of various dimensions and is characterized by narrow, damp caves popularly taken as dungeons. It stands a huge rock, partially equipped with masonry at the top of the sector, which seems to evoke the figure of a bird. The caves have three niches, with spaces to accommodate a seated person. This has given rise to places being considered to jail. Certain devices stony flanks would have served to attach the arms to the prisoners. An enclosure of the prisons emerges a rock with a carved figure. It is believed that portrays a condor.

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2.2.4 Temple of the Cóndor

The condor was an important deity in the sacralized world and magic of the Incas, was the being who could bring souls from earth to infinity, where they would meet with the sun god, in their myths and representations is always present.

The area is bounded by walls and stairs, access is controlled by a gate double jamb,
marking the hierarchy and the activities taking place in this area located on a corner, presents a variety of environments closed and open with one and two levels.

The central courtyard is a distributor, whose main point is the representation of Condor amid a triangular bloom, in the center of it is carved the head, beak and eyes and the collar on his neck real condor, the wings have a very clear representation and the body which projects inwardly from a cavern, the same can be pierced and that leads to the top of the condor, representing the back of that bird in a symbolic transition from life to death, to be carried on the wings of the condor of the sun god in the cave ground (body) were found offerings, pottery and skeletal remains of camelids, confirming the quality of "ceremonial center".

The Inca sculpture has been little studied in the visual arts of the Incas, made unfair has been overlooked the rare trend of abstraction of sculptors, these artists sought beauty not only in reproduction or copy of the real, but the supreme imaginative daring, sometimes with pure linear abstractions, terribly beautiful; but simultaneously astonishingly modern look, fabulously stylish, which work of a contemporary artist whose functionalism has not yet been deciphered. One wonders about the genius of the ancient Peruvians, architects and sculptors who made the stone as they wanted, there are scarce knowledge of the aesthetic values ​​of those fabulous Incas who were the first in the artistic and aesthetic abstraction.

In the Temple of the Condor, you have that combination of sculpture that architecture is or becomes part of it, not decorate, are only one expression, so we feel it in the Temple of the Condor, where the cave was used, was outlined in walls, stony outcrops styled, blending nature with manmade. The wings are represented by two outcrops that seem suspended only at its ends, so it gives the appearance of being in the air and that resemble the wings of a condor in flight.

This representation leads us to think about why the Incas, technical savvy as elaborate stonework, not made ​​sculptures with representations more artistic and realistic image of the tutelary gods like the condor, the snake or hills; natural explanation is that in all his works show respect for the "Pachamama" or Mother Earth, which are integrated with great skill, adapting its forms, altering as little as possible the purpose and form of their deities; surely the greatest tribute to them, not to transform the ways of their gods that nature offered the Incas.

On the back of the condor an environment is semi-circular, where three large niches in the middle of each of them, there is another smaller, on the sides you can see holes that were used to hold mummies, which were placed in these large niches, these holes have also suggested the use of shackles on wrists for prisoners, made unlikely because they would have to fracturarles arms to pass through these holes.

At a higher level and behind the condor, surrounds it nine niches trapezoids,
on a wall adjacent to one of the terraces of the square, each with enough space,
so that a man can quepar standing with a peephole towards the square and the Temple of the Trilogy, here possibly remained the mummies facing to the square, symbolically participating in the life of the city. The architectural quality of the whole temple of the condor and its location within the city, confirms that we had a ceremonial function. The distribution of space is cleverly conceived in terms of the rock, representing the condor was surrounded by all the mummies of the ancestors who were transported by him to the sun god.

Complete the complex an environment of two floors which is located opposite the condor has two entrances, the second level is level with the courtyard of the condor and because of the association functions should have served as home of the priest in charge of the worship of the condor god. This down to the first floor via a staircase leading to other rooms. In a continuous environment were found it cuyeras for breeding animals (guinea pigs), also presents sooty rocks show that was a kitchen; other stairs lead to a lower platform. This area also has particular water service, which is rare in Machu Picchu, which gives expectant category users of this area.

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2.2.5 Adoratorio to Stone

This is a pile of unworked stones, exposed to way to the shrine dedicated to the worship of the stone. In myths, special gifts were conferred to stones or part thereof. They used to embody ancestors were considered ancestors to inert rocks they became combatants to the strong call of the sovereign Pachacutec.

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